Alemu Z.A.,Ding E.L.,Leinsalu M.,Esteghamati A.,Jassal S.K.,Kokubo Y.,Trasande L.,Jahangir E.,Goto A.,Husseini A.,Mullany E.C.,Vasankari T.J.,Albuhairan F.S.,Li Y.,Murray C.J.L.,Kwan G.,Abu-Rmeileh N.M.E.,Basu S.,Yoon J.,Ikeda N.,Forouzanfar M.H.,Kengne A.P.,Biryukov S.,Toyoshima H.,Shiri R.,Davis A.,Fleming T.,Cabral N.,Khang Y.-H.,Dharm More ...
Volume 384, Issue 9945, 2014
, Pages 766-781
Background In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3Â·4 million deaths, 3Â·9% of years of life lost, and 3Â·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013. Methods We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19 244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Findings Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m 2 or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28Â·8% (95% UI 28Â·4-29Â·3) to 36Â·9% (36Â·3-37Â·4) in men, and from 29Â·8% (29Â·3- 30Â·2) to 38Â·0% (37Â·5-38Â·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23Â·8% (22Â·9-24Â·7) of boys and 22Â·6% (21Â·7-23Â·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8Â·1% (7Â·7-8Â·6) to 12Â·9% (12Â·3-13Â·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8Â·4% (8Â·1-8Â·8) to 13Â·4% (13Â·0-13Â·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Interpretation Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Â© 2014 Elsevier Ltd.